kiyi, credit: © Paul Vecsei – Great Lakes Fishery Commission


Upper Great Lakes Population: Special Concern Provincially and Nationally


• Silvery sides with pink or purple iridescence; dark back; white underside
• Large eyes; long paired fins; extending lower jaw


• Historically found in all the Great Lakes except Lake Erie
• Now occurs only in Lake Superior (extirpated from Lake Huron in 1973 and from Lake Michigan in 1974)


• Overfishing
• Introduced species (sea lamprey, alewife, rainbow smelt)
• Habitat degradation (eutrophication)


• Not protected under the Endangered Species Act, 2007 or under the Species at Risk Act, 2002


The Lake Ontario subspecies is considered extinct. The Great Lakes subspecies has been extirpated from lakes Huron and Michigan, and it now occurs only in Lake Superior.