Wingspan: 12 cm, with 6 cm tails
Description: pale green, pink-edged wings with long tails, transparent spot on each wing, those on forewing joined by dark line to wing edge
Larvae: up to 85 mm long; bright green with sparse hairs; each segment with widely-spaced reddish spots
Range: throughout south and central Ontario, north to nearly James Bay
Habitat: forested areas
Larval foodplants: birch preferred, but also walnut and several other species
Flight season: mid May to July
Overwintering stage: cocoon
True fact: Male giant silkmoths like luna, polyphemus and cecropia have much larger antennae than their female counterparts. These are used to detect pheromones emitted by females; the males can track this seductive “perfume” over one kilometre to its source during breeding season.
Wingspan: 110 – 150 mm
Description: wings generally rich brown colour, oval transparent spot on each of four wings ringed by yellow, black and blue, those on hind wings also surrounded by large bluish-black patch; crescent-shaped pink and white marks near base of forewing, pink to brownish line near edges of forewing
Larvae: up to 80 mm, bright green, with sparse protruding hairs and yellow streaks and reddish spots on sides
Range: throughout the southern and central part of our province, north to James Bay
Habitat: forested areas
Larval foodplants: many trees, including oak, birch, ash, grape, hickory, maple
Flight season: mid May to July
Overwintering stage: cocoon, resembles a silken egg wrapped in leaves
True fact: Due to its large eyespots, this moth is named after the Cyclops Polyphemus (a one-eyed monster), a legendary character from The Odyssey. In The Odyssey, Homer writes about an encounter between the Cyclops Polyphemus and the hero, Odysseus. Like other giant silkmoths and the imperial moth, adult Polyphemus moths do not eat as adults, living only a week or two to mate and begin the next generation, literally starving to death in the process.
Wingspan: 110 – 160 mm
Description: Our largest moth. Red body banded with white on abdomen, also white collar. Rich brown wings with reddish bases, white crescent-shaped eyespots on all wings lined with red and black, white band spans each wing beyond eyespot.
Larvae: Robust, up to 100 mm. Green with two pairs of red spiny tubercles on thorax, two rows of blue spiny tubercles on sides, and two rows of yellow spiny tubercles down back.
Range: southern and central Ontario
Habitat: successional areas, including suburban and urban environments
Larval foodplants: many trees and shrubs, including birch, lilac, cherry, apple, willow, ashes and elms among others
Flight season: late May to July
Overwintering stage: cocoon spun on branches
True fact: The silken cocoon of our giant silkmoths (cecropia, luna, polyphemus and others) can be used to make clothing, but are much more difficult to unravel than the cocoons of the Chinese silkworm moth, which produces virtually all commercial silk.
Wingspan: 80 – 170 mm
Description: a large moth with a heavy body, yellow wings variably shaded with pinkish to purplish patches and similarly coloured dots on hindwing, body pinkish to purplish overlying yellow
Larvae: up to 100 mm; green, sparsely haired, black-edged white spots on side, four orange tubercles on top of thorax
Range: throughout southern and central Ontario, north to northern Lake Huron and Ottawa area
Habitat: deciduous, mixed and coniferous forest
Larval foodplants: mainly pine, maple, oak, sycamore, sweetgum
Flight season: June to August
Overwintering stage: pupa in the soil
True fact: This species is dimorphic, with the female being larger and usually yellower than the male. A pine-eating subspecies, called the pine imperial moth, occurs in the northern parts of this widespread moth’s range, and is most commonly encountered in Canadian Shield areas.
Ilia Underwing Moth
Wingspan: 65 – 80 mm
Description: forewing mottled grey; may have white spot on forewing, hindwing alternating orange to pinkish orange and black bands, edged with yellow
Larvae: up to 75 mm; grayish or brownish with dark patches
Range: throughout southern and central Ontario
Habitat: in areas where oaks grow
Larval foodplants: black, burr, red and white oak trees
Flight season: June to September
Overwintering stage: eggs laid on tree bark
True fact: Other names for this beautiful and common underwing moth include “Beloved Underwing” and “the Wife.”
Description: Adults – a stout body, olive to golden-green on backside of thorax, yellowish underneath, dark burgundy on the abdomen; forewings and hindwings have large unscaled, clear areas bordered to the edges with dark brown scales and with dark scales along veins; wingspan 4–5.5 cm
Larvae: stout, lime to yellowish green caterpillar with a bluish coloured curved horn on its back at the posterior end; a light yellow stripe runs along the sides to the horn; the spiracles (openings to the respiratory system on either side) are white with orange to pink borders; also known as a hornworm
Foodplants: Larvae – viburnums, hawthorns, honeysuckles, snowberry, cherries, plums
Adults – seek nectar from bergamot, beebalm, lilac, red clover, phlox, Japanese honeysuckle and thistles
Habitat: woodlands, forest clearings, second growth areas and suburban gardens
Range: across Canada south to Florida and Texas; common from April to August
Overwintering: similar to other sphinx moths, pupates in shallow burrows and over winters as an adult
True fact: The Hummingbird Clearwing not only looks like a hummingbird, its feeding behaviour mimics its namesake. Being a day flier with rapid wingbeats, the Hummingbird Clearwing hovers at flowers probing for nectar with an extended proboscis.
Description: Adults – a stout body with five, occasionally six pairs of yellow spots along both sides of the abdomen; forewings mottled brown and grey, hindwings smaller, with bands of brown and white and two well-defined zig-zag dark lines; wingspan 9-13.5 cm
Larvae: large, stout body, green sometimes dark brown in colour with a black to blue horn on back at the posterior end, along the sides 8 diagonal white lines form angles above and below the spiracles
Foodplants: Larvae – plants in the nightshade family such ground cherry, potato and tomato
Adults – seek nectar from Japanese honeysuckle, bouncing bet, tobacco and a variety of garden plants such as petunia
Habitat: woodland edges, agricultural fields and gardens
Range: across southern Canada
Overwintering: pupates and over winters in the soil
True fact: The tomato hornworm is an agricultural pest with a large appetite for leaves and fruit of tomatoes, potatoes and other nightshades.